Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, L. College of Pharmacy, Navrangpura, AhmedabadIndia. The objective of this study was to develop soft paracetamol gel using gellan gum as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation.

Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of gellan gum 0. The consistency of the paracetamol gel was dependent on the concentration of gellan gum, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel containing 0. Polyethylene glycol worked as a solubilizer for paracetamol.

All the gels possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures revealed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

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Gels are formed by aggregation of polymers with minimum two components; the gelling agent and the fluid component. Gellan gum, carrageenan, pectin, sodium alginate and gelatin are widely used gelling agents in pharmaceutical industries. Gellan gum was selected as a gelling agent in the present investigation to prepare easy to swallow oral medicated ready to use soft gel.

Gellan gum is a high molecular weight water-soluble linear anionic polysaccharide produced by the fermentation of the organism Sphingomonas elodea [ 1 ]. The native form of gellan gum contains two acyl substituents, namely acetate and glycerate.

Acylated gellan gum gives soft, very elastic and non-brittle gels whereas deacylated gellan gum gives hard, non-elastic and brittle gels under optimum gelling conditions. The mechanism of gelation involves the formation of double helical junction zones from random coil chains coil-to-helix transition followed by aggregation of double helical segments to form a three-dimensional network by complexation with cations and hydrogen bonding with water[ 3 ].

Aggregation behavior is affected by the pH of the solution[ 4 ]. By varying the concentration of gellan gum and cation, gels with different gel strength and gel texture can be manufactured. The objective of this investigation was to develop hydrophilic gel dosage form for oral administration of paracetamol.

This gel dosage form is suitable for pediatric, geriatric patients or patients with dysphagia. The gel dosage form can be swallowed easily without water. The patient will not experience chocking of throat, as the gels are soft and smooth. The gel dosage form outpasses the liquid dosage form from the viewpoints of patient acceptance and an attractive appearance. The problem of dose measurement by patients is outweighed as oral medicated gels are to be packed in unit dose.

The gel dosage form can be versatile in nature in the sense that it can be used as such or it can be taken with food items such as biscuits and breads. Paracetamol, an analgesic, antipyretic agent, a BCS biopharmaceutical classification system class III drug, was selected as a model[ 5 ]. Paracetamol tastes bitter and hence taste masking is made one of the objectives in developing the paracetamol soft gel. Methylparaben and propylparaben were procured from Apex Pharmaceuticals India.

Sucralose and sodium citrate were kindly gifted from Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Food grade sucrose was procured from the local market.Open your refrigerator and pull out that bottle of almond milk. When you read the ingredient list, do you see xantham gum or guar gum? Have you ever wondered what these gums are and whether or not you should be concerned about their safety? There are a whole host of gums that are widely used in the food and personal-care industries.

They act as thickeners, stabilizers and emulsifiers, and some are made from food, while others are the product of bacterial fermentation. Questions regarding their safety have arisen due to reports of potential side effects, as well as the results of some animal and human studies. The purpose of this article is to provide you with information on gums so you can make informed, healthy decisions about what you and your family consume.

Made from the guar bean or Indian cluster bean, guar gum is used to stabilize, emulsify and thicken the texture of foods and industrial products, including almond milk, yogurt, soup and fiber supplements. Guar gum has eight times the thickening potency as cornstarch and holds up well to freezing and thawing cycles, as well as heat. It also acts as a binding agent in gluten-free recipes.

Guar gum is low in calories and high in fiber, which can help you stay fuller for longer and may assist in weight control. It can also help normalize blood sugar and cholesterol levels, which decreases risk of diabetes and heart disease. Unfortunately, guar gum can also lead to gastrointestinal GI side effects such as gas.

In addition, the excessive use of guar diet pills, which results in a large amount of gel in the GI tract, can obstruct the esophagus and intestines. To date, no carcinogenic effects of gums have been reported. Commonly found in gluten-free baked goods, this thickening and stabilizing agent is made by bacterial fermentation. Some have raised concern over the foods from which xanthan gum is derived: GMO corn, GMO soy, wheat and dairy, all of which are common food allergens.

Not only will you find xanthan gum in baked goods, they may also be present in jams, sauces, puddings, pastry fillings, ice cream and sherbet, as well as non-food items, such as lotions, medicine, toothpaste, paint, tile grout and herbicides. Safety concerns about the use of xanthan gum have arisen as high doses can cause GI side effects, such as gas, softer stools and increased stool output.

Inthe FDA warned against giving infants Simply Thick, which is often added to formula to help infants with swallowing problems. The product was linked to necrotizing enterocolitis NECa condition in which the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and dies. No animal or human studies have found damage to the intestinal mucosa following xanthan gum consumption, even in large doses, so this danger appears to be unique to infants. One study published in showed a possible benefit as a cancer fighter, as xanthan gum significantly retarded tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice who had melanoma.

Acacia gum can be classified as a prebiotic, as it elicits an increase in breath hydrogen after consumption. As a prebiotic which is the nourishment for probioticsit can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacterium and lactobacilli in the colon. Possible benefits of acacia gum were identified by a study in which participants who ingested 30 grams per day for one and a half months had a lower body mass index. However, possible side effects include bloating, gas, and loose stools.

It is not recommended for pregnant or lactating women, as it interacts with iron-containing supplements and can cause an allergic reaction that results in skin lesions and respiratory problems. Tara gum is one of the newest food additives and there is little data available on it safety and efficacy.

Unlike other gums, tara gum is derived from the legume of an ornamental shrub from Peru. It is odorless and tasteless and often used with xanthan gum or carageenan as a thickener and stabilizer in dairy products, tortillas, canned vegetables and canned legumes.Locust bean gum is a natural food additive that comes from the carob seeds of the carob tree.

Locust bean gum is also gluten-free and sometimes used in foods to provide a chocolaty flavor. So is locust bean gum good or bad for you? What is locust bean gum? Also known as carob bean gum, carob gum and carobin, it comes from the seeds of the carob tree. The carob tree or locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua is a member of the pea family and native to the eastern Mediterranean region.

How is carob bean gum made? So the carob tree has pods that contain both seeds and pulp. What is the endosperm? The nutritional content of 2. Just a few grams of locust gum contains about 10 percent of daily fiber needs. All of the subjects consumed food products that either had no locust bean gum LBG or contained LBG in an amount ranging from eight to 30 grams per day. An animal study published in the journal Phytotherapy Research looked at the effects of both guar gum and locust bean gum on blood glucose and insulin levels.

The animal subjects also had lower blood cholesterol levels by the end of the study. As a soluble fiber, locust bean gum is suspected to be beneficial to human diabetics as well. One study specifically looked at the anti-diarrheal influence of locust bean juice on 80 children between the ages of four months and two years. These children were all admitted to the hospital with acute cases of diarrhea and either mild or moderate dehydration.

The results were impressive: The children who took ORS and locust bean juice had their diarrhea last a 45 percent shorter amount of time. Additionally, three children who only received the ORS ended up with hypernatremia a high concentration of sodium in the bloodbut no one in the ORS plus locust been juice group experienced hypernatremia. Locust bean gum appears to be safe for most people in normal dietary amounts. On the negative side, a very small study several decades ago did show that carob bean gum may interfere with the absorption of vital nutrients.

The exact symptoms of a locust bean gum food allergy can vary by person. Always seek medical attention for any serious allergic reactions. However, some speciality food stores as well as online resources do carry it. In sauces and salad dressings, it can makes an effective thickening agent.

Using locust bean gum in gluten-free bread recipes has been shown to increase loaf height. Looking to make some gluten-free noodles? Locust bean gum powder is just what you need. This recipe for Mango Noodles includes just three ingredients: mango juice, locust bean gum and agar a jelly-like substance that comes from algae.

The majority of locust bean gum today is used by the food industry.Six hundred years ago, people living along the coast of Carragheen County Ireland started using a red algae, which came to be known as Irish moss, to make a jellied dessert.

This moss is now the source of carrageenan, a fat substitute perhaps most famously used in the failed McLean Deluxe and a food additive used as a thickener in dairy and nondairy products. In I raised a concern about carrageenan. This was all five years ago, though. See Is Carrageenan Safe? After the activation of inflammatory pathways was demonstrated in actual human colon tissue samples, Europe pulled it from infant formula, concerned that infants might be getting too much at such a vulnerable age.

The latest suggests carrageenan consumption could possibly lead to a leaky gut by disrupting the integrity of the tight junctions that form around the cells lining our intestine—the barrier between our bloodstream and the outside world. This was just an in vitro study, though, done in a Petri dish. Personally, after having reviewed the available evidence, I continue to view carrageenan the way I view acrylamide, another potential, but unproven hazard.

Acrylamide is a chemical formed by cooking carbohydrates at high temperatures. So should we avoid eating such foods, like the EPA suggests? Foods that are already unhealthy. For more on Acrylamide, see my video Acrylamide in French Fries.

Preparation and Evaluation of Soft Gellan Gum Gel Containing Paracetamol

I would, however, suggest that those with inflammatory bowel syndrome or other gastrointestinal problems try cutting out carrageenan at least temporarily to see if symptoms improve. Titanium dioxide is another additive used in nondairy substitutes. Michael Greger, M. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues.

Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial. On NutritionFacts. As always, our goal is to foster conversations that are insightful, engaging, and most of all, helpful — from the nutrition beginners to the experts in our community. To help maintain and foster a welcoming atmosphere in our comments, please refrain from rude comments, name-calling, and responding to posts that break the rules see our full Community Guidelines for more details.

We will remove any posts in violation of our rules when we see it, which will, unfortunately, include any nicer comments that may have been made in response. Be respectful and help out our staff and volunteer health supporters by actively not replying to comments that are breaking the rules. Instead, please flag or report them by submitting a ticket to our help desk. Have a correction or suggestion for video or blog?

is gellan gum a carcinogen

Please contact us to let us know. Submitting a correction this way will result in a quicker fix than commenting on a thread with a suggestion or correction. View the Full Community Guidelines. Pacific Naturals Oat milk and seven grain milk do not have it in them.Check the nutrition label on almond milk, soups, sauces and certain other foods, and you might see guar gum listed as an ingredient.

Like locust bean gum, gellan gum and similar "gums," guar gum is widely used in the food and personal care industries, says the American Council on Exercise ACE. Guar gum, made from the guar bean or Indian cluster bean, is used to stabilize, emulsify and thicken the texture of foods and some industrial products, ACE explains. Some gums — including guar gum, gellan gum and locust bean gum — are made from food. Others, like xanthan gum, are the product of bacterial fermentation.

Although guar gum may have some benefits, there also can be negative side effects of consuming this and other gums in excess. Understanding how guar gum functions in the body can help you determine whether to reduce or eliminate this additive from your diet. Guar gum is a polysaccharide — a complex combination of carbohydrates made up of the sugars galactose and mannose.

It has wide-ranging applications in various industries due to its thickening, emulsifying, binding and gelling properties, according to July research in the International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Guar gum is also known for its quick solubility in water, pH stability and biodegradability. With eight times the thickening potency as cornstarch, guar gum holds up well against freezing, thawing and heat, says ACE.

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The Food and Drug Administration includes guar gum on its list of foods that are generally recognized as safe for consumption, or GRAS. Federal regulations specify the amounts of guar gum to use in various food products — ranging from 0. Because guar gum is low in calories and high in fiber, it may help you stay full for longer stretches and aid in weight control, says ACE.

It also may help to normalize blood sugar and cholesterol, decreasing the risk of diabetes and heart disease. One small study including people with irritable bowel syndrome IBS found that partially hydrolyzed guar gum improved IBS symptoms, according to research published in the March-April issue of the Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology.

Among the participants, there was an overall reduction of bloating and an increase in the number of stools. Guar gum may also act as a binding agent in gluten-free products, ACE adds. Gluten, a protein found in wheat, is responsible for the elastic, "springy" quality of bread-related products, explains a December review in Frontiers in Nutrition.

is gellan gum a carcinogen

Guar gum and other types of gums are types of "gluten replacers," says Frontiers in Nutrition — helping to retain the qualities of bread and similar products while eliminating gluten from the ingredients. For some people, gluten triggers an immunological response that causes damage to the small intestine. As such, eating gluten-free products — in some cases, products that may contain gums — can be a way to avoid this inflammatory reaction.

The Harmful Side Effects of Guar Gum

However, if your diet revolves around eating gluten-free foods containing gums, you may experience digestive problems, including abdominal gas, bloating and loose stools, according to ACE. If you eat a gluten-free diet and you're experiencing gastrointestinal GI problems, check the labels of foods you're eating for guar gum and other gums. It's possible this additive is causing your digestive distress. ACE adds that the use of guar diet pills can result in a large amount of gel in the GI tract and can potentially obstruct the esophagus and intestines.

Locust Bean Gum: The Pros & Cons of This Common Thickening Agent

ACE advises getting familiar with the different types of gums and how the body typically responds to them. In addition to guar gum, other types of gums include:. If you're eating gluten-free or otherwise consuming products containing guar gum or other additives, take note of how your body responds to them.

is gellan gum a carcinogen

Some people may be sensitive to additives and experience side effects from eating them. If that's the case, you may do well to avoid them.

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If you're pregnant or lactating, err on the side of caution when it comes to safety of gums, adds ACE. Always check with your health provider if you're unsure which foods are best for you. When you focus on eating whole foods rather than those that have been highly processed, you'll create a healthy eating pattern that's in step with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. These guidelines recommend a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, limited fats and fat-free or low-fat dairy.

Eat no more than 10 percent of your diet from added sugars and saturated fats, and limit sodium to 2, milligrams per day.Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea formerly Pseudomonas elodea based on the taxonomic classification at the time of its discovery. It was initially identified as a substitute gelling agent at significantly lower use level to replace agar in solid culture media for the growth of various microorganisms.

The repeating unit of the polymer is a tetrasaccharide, which consists of two residues of D - glucose and one of each residues of L - rhamnose and D - glucuronic acid. Gellan gum is initially used as a gelling agent, alternative to agarin microbiological culture. It was identified as an especially useful gelling agent in culturing thermophilic microorganisms. Gellan gum is also used as gelling agent in plant cell culture on Petri dishesas it provides a very clear gel, facilitating light microscopical analyses of the cells and tissues.

Although advertised as being inertexperiments with the moss Physcomitrella patens have shown that choice of the gelling agent - agar or Gelrite - does influence phytohormone sensitivity of the plant cell culture. As a food additivegellan gum was first approved for food use in Japan Gellan gum has subsequently been approved for food, non-food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses by many other countries such as US, Canada, China, Korea and the European Union etc.

It is widely used as a thickeneremulsifierand stabilizer. It has E number E It was an integral part of the now defunct Orbitz soft drink. It is used as the gelling agent, as an alternative to gelatin, in the manufacture of vegan varieties of "gum" candies. It is used in plant-based milks to keep plant protein suspended in the milk. Gellan gum, when properly hydrated, can be used in ice cream and sorbet recipes that behave as a fluid gel after churning. The benefit of using gellan gum is that the ice cream or sorbet can be set in a dish of flaming alcohol or heated with a propane torch without actually melting.

In the United States, Kelco was responsible for obtaining food approval for gellan gum worldwide. In other markets that are fond of innovative food ingredients such as Japan, the process for obtaining food approval has been undertaken by local food and beverage manufacturers.

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Kelco, now the CP Kelco family of companies owned by J. Huber Corporation historically, produced the majority of food grade gellan gum. However, since the entry into the segment of Royal DSM, the Dutch science and food nutrition conglomerate, users of food grade gellan gum now procure from 2 high quality suppliers.

Chinese suppliers have also been increasingly aggressive in gellan gum production. However, the lack of consistent quality production, adherence to stringent food grade requirements and lack of a strong technical and application support means that such gellan gum is primarily destined for use in personal care or household care applications.

Pure gellan gum is one of the most expensive hydrocolloids. Its cost in use, however, is competitive with the other much lower priced hydrocolloids. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from E CAS Number. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Cleary, Matthew J. Fagan, Milton H. Saier, Jr. Casida, Jr.Huge thanks to VelvetGlove for writing this script.

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Should Carrageenan Be Avoided?

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